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The Solid White Vote Explained – Alexandria Gazette

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 89, Number 266, 12 November 1888

Chairman Barbour, of the State democratic committee, and every one of the Virginia democratic Congressmen elected last Tuesday, may thank the Negroes — who voted solidly against them — for their success; for it was nothing else than the dread of the effects of a black republican victory, and consequently of black supremacy, with all its necessarily incident disorder, confusion and danger, that kept thousands of white men within the democratic lines. A solid negro, naturally tends to make a solid white vote, and it is upon the latter that the welfare of every Southern State depends.

Negro Dupes – Alexandria Gazette, November 10, 1888

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 89, Number 266, 10 November 1888

Few intelligent men, familiar with the true condition of affairs in the South, blame the Negroes of this section for voting invariably as a unit for republicans, and, as a rule, for the worst ones they can find; nor for the disorders they create, nor the outrages they commit. The negroes, notwithstanding the quarter of a century of free schools, are utterly ignorant. They are, therefore, the easy dupes of low, selfish, and vicious white men, who lead them like so many sheep. The account of the negro outrage in Raleigh, referred to in yesterday’s Gazette says “the negroes were incited by white men.” It is so everywhere. The fault lies with the white republicans, who, however, during such dangers as follow, escape and allow their poor dupes to suffer.

Cleveland Loss Due to Recognition of Negroes – Alexandria Gazette

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 89, Number 264, 8 November 1888

Mr. [Grover] Cleveland, gave some of the best places at his disposal to negroes in order, as he said, that the colored citizens of the country should be recognized. The colored citizens in New York and Indiana, by voting solidly against Mr. Cleveland, gave both of those states to Mr. Harrison, and thereby elected him. Mr. Cleveland’s recognition of the negroes was bad for the Democratic party.

Contract Signed – Lee Camp Meeting – November 5, 1888

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 89, Number 262, 6 November 1888

Lee Camp – At the meeting of Lee Camp Confederate Veterans, held last night, the committee appointed to purchase a monument to be erected in this city to the Confederate dead, were authorized to sign the contract for the same. It was decided to erect the monument at the intersection of Washington and Prince Streets, and the City Council will be petitioned to grant the right to erect it at that point. A communication from Lee Camp of Richmond, enclosing a request from a G.A.R. Post of Boston for the loan of a Confederate battle flag, to be used in that city on the occasion of a celebration to be held there soon, was received and the camp flag loaned.

The Environment

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 89, Number 260, 3 November 1888
Saturday Evening, November 3

There are only two days between this and election day. If there be any white man in Virginia in whose mind a single doubt yet remains concerning the ballot he shall cast, let him reflect that to every Virginian who has any interest in the welfare of his State, the result of the election will be of the greatest importance. To every such man the tariff, the internal revenue, the Blair bill, and the refusal of Mr. Vilas to appoint ex-confederates to watchmen’s places, are insignificant when compared with the injury that would be inflicted upon every industrial interests in Virginia by the almost necessary effect of a republican victory. The republicans themselves avow their intention, in case of success, of reopening the Southern question, and that, of course, would at once revive all of the now almost settled sectional and race animosities in the South; and all men of common sense know that business could not prosper under such a condition of affairs. And besides, so ignorant are the vast majority of the negroes, that they would look upon a republican victory as a complete license for any impudence of which they might choose to be guilty; and it would be but a step from such impudence to actual outrage. The impudence would naturally be resented, and the outrage certainly be prevented, and the whole State be thrown into confusion and trouble, and a general depression in all kinds of industry be the inevitable result. The condition of the people of Virginia is bad enough as it is, in all conscience, but it would be infinitely worse if the South hating party should regain control of the government. Better bear the ills we have than fly to those worse ones, which we know of by bitter experience.

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An intelligent and thrifty foreign born resident of the city told the writer of this article yesterday that he had always, heretofore, been a republican, but that he had lived to see the error of his way, and had learned that so far as the Southern States are concerned, it is for the interest of every one of them, and of that of all their people, black as well as white, that every white man in them should vote the democratic ticket. The issue in the South, he said, is white or black supremacy, and when reduced to that, every white man should vote the same way, for blood is thicker than water. He had found, he said, by long experience, that if the negroes be given an inch they will demand an ell, and that the best way to get along with them was to keep them in their place. He had, he said, recently seen groups of young negro men on the outskirts of the city, either gaze insultingly at young white women, or else so obstruct the sidewalk as to make them take the roadway in order to pass. Some native born residents of the city would do well to follow the example set them by their foreign born fellow citizen referred to.

Negro History Week The Sixth Year

A-button-sold-in-1932-for-the-GW-200th-birthday.
The Journal of Negro History
Vol. XVII — April, 1932 — No. 2

Negro History Week is being more widely celebrated from year to year as a result of the increasing interest in the study of the Negro. In 1932, however, it received new stimulus from the protest of Negroes against the elimination of their achievements from those emphasized in the literature used in the celebration of the George Washington Bicentennial. In making an effort to focus attention on the large contribution of the Negro to the independence and development of the United States teachers and public spirited citizens did much to enlighten the public on this neglected aspect of our history.

What the George Washington Bicentennial Commission failed to do, then, was done by the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History as far as its limited resources permitted. The systematic and well financed effort to eliminate the Negro from the scene, of course, could not be counteracted altogether by one struggling organization; but the staff was successful in arousing to action a sufficient number of persons of both races to protest against such a biased and unhistoric attitude of the politicians who directed the celebration; and they have had difficulty in explaining their position.

Going in the direction contrary to that of the celebration of Negro History Week, the directors of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration undertook to restrict the Negroes’ participation to that of slaves; and unfortunately a number of thoughtless Negroes, not learned in history, were inclined to accept this role without much protest. The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, however, kept before the public the fact that while the large majority of Negroes of Washington’s time were slaves there were others who had shown sufficient enterprise to become free and to take their places on a higher level in the social order; and if a celebration is to stimulate the public to nobler deeds, certainly we should hold up before Negroes the examples of those who have gone upward rather than those of the race who have remained down on the last rung of the social ladder.

The Director of the Association, therefore, pointed out certain neglected characters who during Washington’s time impressed their worth upon the public. Jupiter Hammon and Phyllis Wheatley in poetry; James Derham in medicine; Benjamin Banneker and Thomas Fuller in science and mathematics; and Richard Allen, Lemuel Hayes, George Liele, and Andrew Bryan in religion. These men by superior attainments had demonstrated to Washington and his contemporaries that they were capable of a mental development and social amelioration to qualify as functionaries in a higher sphere than that to which they had been assigned in a country settled by men seeking an asylum from the oppressive lords of Europe.

The Director invited attention especially to the martyrdom of Crispus Attucks who in the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770 shed the first blood in behalf of American independence. On that memorable day, according to John Adams, the foundation of our liberty was laid in the blood of that man of African blood. The George Washington Bicentennial Commission passed over this altogether, and so far as they were concerned this generation would never know that such a thing happened. Crispus Attucks Day, however, was celebrated in New England as a holiday until it was superseded by the observance of the Fourth of July.

During the celebration of Negro History Week, then, attention was directed especially to this and other significant dates on which Negroes displayed unusual valor, when thousands of patriots of African blood followed George Washington from battle to battle and helped to make him the “Father of His Country.” On June 17, 1775 Peter Salem immortalized himself at Bunker Hill by striking down from a parapet the British Major Pitcairn. Salem Poor so distinguished himself in the same battle at Charlestown that he was commended to the Continental Congress for bravery by fourteen officers of the army. On July 9, 1777 a Negro under the command of Colonel Barton at Newport captured Major General Prescott of the British army at great peril which no other soldier dared to risk. On June 28, 1778 in the battle of Monmouth, which was all but lost by the treachery of Charles Lee, 700 Negroes rallied with George Washington to save the day for America. On August 29, 1778 Negroes bravely held their ground in one of the fiercest encounters of the Revolution, which, because of the unusual valor shown at a critical moment, has gone down in history as the great Battle of Rhode Island. On July 16, 1779 Pompey, a slave who had learned the countersign of the British, led the American soldiers under Mad Anthony Wayne to the capture of Stony Point. On May 14, 1781 in an unsuccessful encounter in which Colonel Greene of the American Army was killed at Points Bridge in New York, this commander could not be reached except over the dead bodies of his Negro soldiers who on that day died heroically for the fatherland. On October 19, 1781 at Yorktown, the final battle of war, Negroes stood both with the forces on land and on sea with the French who had come from the West Indies to make this contribution as a death blow to the power of the British on these shores.

To ignore those heroes who thus sacrificed their lives and dramatize the Negro merely as a servant or slave leading Washington’s horse is a distortion of history and a reflection upon the intelligence of our citizenry. To popularize the heroic record of the Negro, therefore, a large supply of literature was distributed, and speakers were sent to strategic points to give a liberal interpretation of our history. Fortunately, too, these speakers reached many intelligent citizens who had organized wide-awake committees to provide for the proper participation in the celebration. Speaking engagements sometimes developed, too, into conferences or round table discussions requiring several days.

Probably the most impressive of these demonstrations of interest was the meeting in the Caucus Room of the National Capitol, addressed by Congressman Oscar DePriest of Illinois, Congressman Luce of Massachusetts, and President Mordecai W. Johnson of Howard University. Pupils, teachers, federal employees, and business men listened with interest to inspiring and informing discourses on the history of the Negro and the status of the race in the modern world.

Other speakers were equally as successful elsewhere. Prof. Benjamin Brawley spoke with great success to audiences in Rochester and Washington. Dr. Charles H. Wesley did likewise in Philadelphia and at Hampton. Mr. Walter H. Mazyck, author of George Washington and the Negro, spoke at several places near home but reached groups as far South as Greensboro, Columbia, and Charleston.

The Director of the Association found time to speak to the students and faculty of the Maryland State Normal School and to go as far North as Buffalo. Speaking in connection with Dr. Nathaniel Cantor in that city, he convinced a large number of hearers of the importance of studying together the achievements of all races. Going across the continent from this point, he addressed other groups at St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, and Lincoln, and on returning still others in Pittsburgh, Columbus, and Cleveland. One of these engagements was at the University of Omaha and another at the University of Nebraska.

Schools in the parts were Negroes live in large numbers proceeded in a more systematic way. In recent years these institutions have accepted the celebration of Negro History Week as a part of their year’s program, and they work toward it as in the case of any other objective. They invite speakers to discuss various aspects of Negro history, but they do the more important thing of teaching the students to do this for themselves. Here and there throughout the country, then, were staged plays and pageants which together with other appropriate exercises took up the whole week in these institutions.

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Proceedings of the Association For the Study of Negro Life and History – October 1927 – Pittsburgh

The Journal of Negro History
Volume XIII – January, 1928 – No. 1

This annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History was a record-breaking convention. Such was the general opinion expressed by all who were present. The day sessions were well attended, and the evening sessions were so attractive that the people had to be turned away for lack of seating capacity in the large auditorium of the Ebenezer Baptist Church.

The first feature of the meeting was the Get-Acquainted Dinner at five o’clock on the 24th, given by the citizens of Pittsburgh. This served well the purpose for which it was intended. After the informal introduction of the visitors, the guests sat down to a delightful repast which all enjoyed. At this point, Mr. A.H. Gordon, of the State College at Orangeburg, South Carolina, delivered a well-prepared discourse, “The Struggle of the Negroes of South Carolina for Physical Freedom.” Mr. Garnett C. Wilkinson, First Assistant Superintendent of Public Schools of the District of Columbia, spoke of the interest of his teachers in the work of the Association and what they are now doing to aid it. Dr. J.C. Anderson, Dr. J.H. Robinson, Miss Rachel Taylor, Miss Jean Hamilton, and Mrs. Daisy E. Lampkin also made interesting after-dinner speeches. The guests were further entertained in this fashion at evening tea on Tuesday and Wednesday by Miss Grace Lowndes, Mrs. Addie Fox, and other ladies of the reception committee.

The Musical Festival, at 8:00 P.M. on the same day, was one of the greatest ever held anywhere at any time. Mr. L.P. Jackson, of the Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, appeared first with an informing address on Negro Music. Then followed an interpretation of Negro music in the joint recital of Clarence Cameron White, the noted violinist, and Mrs. Charlotte Wallace Murray, the well-known contralto. Both were at their best. They were inspired by the enthusiasm of a large and appreciative audience which in turn was inspired by them. Everyone present left the auditorium singing the praises of the artists and rejoicing over the idea of inculcating an appreciation of what the Negro has contributed to civilization.

At the first meeting session on Tuesday, the 25th, at 10:30 A.M., Dr. W.R. Brown of Pittsburgh presided. In appropriate language he presented Dr. B.F. Glass, who delivered the welcome address, by the warm-heartedness of which the visitors were made to feel at home. Bishop R.A Carter, of Chicago, responded on behalf of the Association with words which appropriately expressed the feeling of the representatives from various parts. These delegates were then introduced and were given an opportunity to report in brief on what is being done for the work in their respective localities. Among the visitors who thus spoke were: Mrs. Ella P. Stewart, of the Toledo Branch of the Association, Mr. D.R. Clarke, of the St. Louis Branch, Mr. W.E. Griffin, of the Kansas City Branch, Mr. E.P. Southall of Norfolk, and Dr. E.W. Moore of California.

At 3:30 P.M., the Association reassembled for a session in celebration of the centennial of the Negro newspaper. Mr. R.L. Vann, editor of the Pittsburgh Courier, presided. Taking the chair, he gave a resume’ of the Negro newspapers before the Civil War, showing the courage, honesty of purpose and spirit of sacrifice of their founders. Dr. George F. Bragg, of Baltimore, then delivered his address, “Negro Editors as I knew them Fifty Years ago.”
His discourse showed the results of extensive preparation and was so delivered as to leave a favorable impression. Mr. Charles S. Johnson, Editor of Opportunity, appeared next with a most illuminating treatment of the “Rise of the Negro Magazine.” He explained how the Negro magazine developed from the newspaper and evaluated the service it has rendered. A general discussion of some importance followed.

At 8:00 P.M., the leading thought of the session was the Negro internationally considered a century ago. Mr. Garnett C. Wilkinson presided. The attendance was unusually large. Mr. L.L. McKenzie, of the West Virginia Collegiate Institute, entertained the audience with a paper entitled, “The Effect of the American Revolution on the Status of the Negro”; Prof. Charles H. Wesley deeply impressed his hearers with a review of the struggle of Hayti and Liberia for recognition; and Prof. N. Andrew N. Cleven, of the University of Pittsburgh, addressed the meeting on the “Negro in the Panama Congress of 1825.” These addresses, centering around a common point of agreement, were unusually informing and gave the audience a new idea of the serious work of the Association.

As there had arisen a necessity for changing the hour of the business session, it took place on Wednesday morning at 9:30 A.M. instead of at 1:00 P.M. as scheduled. The reports of the officers were duly made, commented on, and adopted. The Association was so well pleased with the work thus reported that the acting Secretary, Mr. L.P. Jackson, was, by vote to this effect, instructed to cast the unanimous ballot of the body for the reelection of the present corps of officers. Plans for the more successful prosecution of the work were then bought forward and discussed in detail. Inasmuch as these did not get beyond the point of helpful suggestions, however, no definite action was taken, except to approve the plan for the organization of branches which involved a change of the constitutional requirement of five members for a club so as to provide for ten members for a branch.

At 10:30 A.M., with President John W. Davis of the West Virginia Collegiate Institute presiding, “The Round Table of the Branches” was called to order. He mentioned the early expansion of the Association, first through study clubs, and recently through the organization of the larger groups. Representatives of these branches were then asked to express their views on what a branch should be and how it may function in cooperation with the central office in Washington. These reports, which cannot be mentioned here in detail, were most important for the reason that here the workers from various parts of the country had the opportunity to learn from the experiences of others. It was well brought out, too, that while the general purposes of the branches may be the same for all, the efforts in carrying out these purposes must vary according to local needs and conditions. There arose the question as to whether or not juvenile groups shall be organized in the branches; and it was voted that such a plan be recommended to the Business Committee with power to act.

At 1:00 P.M., according to the invitation from the H.J. Heinz Company, the members of the Association went in a body to the spacious Dining Room of this establishment, where ninety-six of them, escorted by Mrs. Addie Fox, who arranged the affair, were served an elaborate luncheon. At the end of the repast, one of the officers of the firm made an address of welcome. Dr. Carter G. Woodson, President John W. Davis, Miss Nannie H. Burroughs, and Dr. W.A. Talley responded to this address. All then left the Dining Room to be escorted through the factories.

After this the delegates returned to the Ebenezer Baptist Church to hold the afternoon session devoted to the discussion of the Negro story. Mr. E.C. Roberts, head of the Academic Department of Tuskegee Institute, presided. In his introductory remarks he gave his own views as to the importance of the Negro story in the training of the child and mentioned results which he had had the opportunity to test. Mr. W.E. Griffin, of the Kansas City Branch, was then introduced to speak on “Story-Telling in the Schools.” He approached the subject from the psychological point of view. The Negro, he said, suffers now from an unfortunate state of mind which may be changed by teaching him something about himself, something to convince him that he can do what others have done. Mr. Griffin expressed the belief that the teaching of Negro stories will do much in this direction. He had made some investigation as to the extent to which it is now being done, and what he had learned is sufficient to encourage him. Next spoke Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, of Lexington, Kentucky. In a well-prepared address she deeply impressed the audience with the pedagogic value of the Negro story in discussing it from the point of view of the teacher. She expressed the thought that there cannot be much hope for the American Negro unless he is stimulated by the ideals and the aspirations of his own group. President R.P. Sims, of the Bluefield Institute, was equally interesting in his remarks on the Negro story from the point of view of the parent. Speaking as both a parent and a teacher, he made a favorable impression. The discussion was closed by Dr. T.W. Wallace, of Pittsburgh, with an illuminating and well-delivered address on the Negro story from the point of view of the minister. He believes that the Negro minister may be a great force in popularizing the Negro story.

The evening session of the last day, Wednesday at 8:00 P.M., was devoted to the discussion of “The Social Value of Negro History.” Mr. S.W. Rutherford, the Secretary-Treasurer of the Association, presided. In calling the meeting to order Mr. Rutherford duly emphasized the importance of the work of the Association and praised those who have made sacrifices to maintain it. Dr. Alain L. Locke, of Washington, D.C., then spoke on recent efforts for the discovery of African Art. His address showed an intelligent grasp of the subject and the ability to present it. Dr. Carter G. Woodson spoke on the importance of teaching Negro history to uproot propaganda. By a forceful address Miss Nannie H. Burroughs emphasized the duty the Negro owes to himself to learn his own story and the duty the white man owes to himself to learn of the spiritual strivings and achievements of a despised but not an inferior people.

Thus came to a close one of the most important meetings ever held in Pittsburgh, and probably the most successful meeting the Association has ever held. The attendance from afar was the largest in the history of the effort, the attendance from the local people was the largest so far recorded by the Association, and the interest manifested by all far exceeded that of any other conference.

The success of the conference may be estimated to some extent by the fact that many persons pledged themselves to take the work more seriously and five persons joined the Association as life members. These were Mrs. Ella P. Stewart, Miss Nannie H. Burroughs, Mr. D.R. Clarke, Dr. Alain Locke, and Dr. Thomas F. Bragg. Among those renewing their interest in the work and expressing the desire to do something effective for it were Mrs. Addie Fox, Dr. George Winstead, and Miss Grace Lowndes.

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It Can’t Be Clearer

In an article discussing the Club for Growth’s effort to derail GOP Presidential candidate, Donald Trump:

“Time is running out,” said Club for Growth spokesman Doug Sachtleben. “Trump could cost us a good shot at the White House, the Senate majority, and ultimately, the Supreme Court.”

I guess I’m naive, but I never thought the Supreme Court was something you actively sought to control.

Silly me.