Category Archives: Confederates

Alexandria’s Confederate Monument Features Likeness of White Supremacist Attorney General

On the day the local newspaper, the Alexandria Gazette, reported on the dedication of the confederate monument [May 24, 1889], Appomattox, the following “note” appeared on page 3:

“It is said that Mr. Elder, when he painted “Appomattox” from which the statue erected today was designed, took the head of Mr. Raleigh T. Daniel for the model.”

In the presidential election of 1860 Raleigh Travers Daniel supported John Bell, a former Whig and candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. Although Daniel initially opposed secession, he warmly embraced the Confederate cause after the spring of 1861 and in November of that year was a presidential elector for Jefferson Davis. Lacking a record of distinction in the militia and being too old for military service, Daniel did not fight in the Civil War but served instead as commonwealth’s attorney of Richmond.

Daniel gained statewide prominence in the altered political environment after the war. In April 1867 he made a patronizing address before a Richmond meeting of African Americans who were soon to vote for the first time in which he suggested that they follow the advice of the state’s white political leaders.

As attorney general, Daniel refused to enforce laws designed to protect voting rights of recently enfranchised African-Americans.

Portions of this article are attributed, with thanks to Encyclopedia Virginia.

Alexandrians Killed and Wounded

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 63, Number 149, 12 June 1862

Alexandrians Killed and Wounded

The Seventeeth Virginia Regiment sustained severe losses in the battles near Richmond, on the 31st of May and 1st of June. We give below a list of such casualties as are published in Richmond papers of the 6th inst:

KILLED — Sergeant Major Francis.
Old Dominion Rifles – Wm. Lunt, shot in breast;  Monroe Whittington, shot in head; J.H. Higdon and John Murray.
Mt. Vernon Guards – James Molair.
Emmett Guards – Lt. Wm. Gray.

WOUNDED
Major Arthur Herbert, shot in the foot.
Old Dominion Rifles – Capt. W.H. Fowle, jr., arm amputated; Lieut. Thomas Fitzhugh, arm amputated; James Godwin, in foot; Jonah W. Baldwin, thigh fractured; Edwin Baldwin, in head slightly; Wm. J. Hall, in head slightly; Robert Young, in right arm slightly; F. August Calmus, slightly; E.W. Burgess; Hallie Appich, in head slightly.

Alexandria Rifles — Color Sergeant William T. Morrell, wounded in arm, side and foot — foot amputated; W.E.H. Clagett, in shoulder, seriously; Richard W. Avery, in top of head; A Carlisle Fairfax, in thigh.

Mt. Vernon Guards — R.H. Roland, seriously; Albert Hicks and ________ Gerecke.

Emmett Guards — Lieut. Adie; Patrick H. Suddoth, Company D.

Loudoun Guards — Chas. Fadley, in arm; C.H. Bradfield.

Other Companies — Thos. W. Lynn, Robert Steele, James M. Jenkins, D.M. Wallace, G.F. Jenkins, J.W. Cromwell.

Col. Wm. Smith, of the 49th Virginia,  was wounded slightly, and Lieut. Col. Gibson, of the same regiment, badly.

Most of the wounded Alexandrians are represented to be at Chew’s Factory Hospital, Richmond.  The Enquirer says; “The building is spacious and airy, and admirably kept. The patients are clean and comfortable, and have every want attended to.  A large number of ladies were yesterday in attendance, ministering to the stricken sufferers as only a woman can.”

Qualification of Voters – Virginia

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 66, Number 101, 4 May 1865

The following is the Third Article of the Constitution of the State of Virginia adopted by the Convention which assembled in Alexandria on the 13th of February, 1864, and which prescribes the qualifications of voters in the State:

Every white male citizen of the Commonwealth, of the age of twenty-one years, who has been a resident of the State for one year, and of the county, city or town where he offers to vote for six months next preceding an election, and has paid all taxes assessed to him, after the adoption of this constitution, under the laws of the Commonwealth after the reorganization of the county, city or town where he offers to vote, shall be qualified to vote for members of the general assembly, and all officers elective by the people.  Provided, however, that no one shall be allowed to vote who, when he offers to vote, shall not thereupon take, or shall not before have taken, the following oath: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the laws made in pursuance thereof, as the supreme law of the land, anything in the Constitution and laws of the State of Virginia, or in the ordinances of the Convention which assembled at Richmond on the thirteenth day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, to the contrary notwithstanding; and that I will uphold and defend the government of Virginia as restored by the Convention which assembled at Wheeling on the eleventh day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, and that I have not since the first day of January, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, voluntarily given aid or assistance, in any way, to those in rebellion against the Government of the United States for the purpose of promoting the same. ” But the Legislature shall have power to pass an act or acts prescribing means which persons who have been disfranchised by this provision shall or may be restored to the rights of voters when in their opinion it will be safe to do so.  Any person falsely so swearing shall be subject to the penalties of perjury.

No person shall hold any office under this Constitution who shall not have taken and subscribed the oath aforesaid.  But no person shall vote or hold office under the constitution who has held office under the so called confederate government, or under any rebellious State government, or has been a member of the so called confederate congress, or a member of any State Legislature in rebellion against the authority of the United States, excepting therefrom county officers.

Were Free Negroes Enslaved to Confederate Service?

From a claim made to the Southern Claims Commission by Exum White, a free “colored” man of Nansemond County, Virginia, the following statement:

“White was a colored man.  The Magistrate of Nansemond Co. in Jany ’62 sentenced him & 100 other colored men to work on the rebel works on railroad near Manassas for 60 days worked by compulsion and got no pay, taken sick & sent home on sick leave. He afterwards worked for the Union army on works around Suffolk for 2 or 3 months. Daniel White and Benjamin Turner attest his loyalty which we find proven.”

Is it possible that 101 free negro men were guilty of crimes that warranted sentencing at the same time?  Was the magistrate at Nansemond technically enslaving free negroes to perform work on behalf of the Confederate military?

This is likely nothing new to historians, but it’s the first time I’ve read that “free” people were used in this way by southern courts.

From Wikipedia –

The Southern Claims Commission (SCC) was an organization of the executive branch of the United States government from 1871-1873 under President Ulysses S. Grant. Its purpose was to allow Union sympathizers who had lived in the Southern states during the American Civil War, 1861–1865, to apply for reimbursements for property losses due to U.S. Army confiscations during the war.

Dates of Secession – Confederate States

Dates of Secession

South Carolina: December 20, 1860

Mississippi: January 9, 1861

Florida: January 10, 1861

Alabama: January 11, 1861

Georgia: January 19, 1861

Louisiana: January 26, 1861

Texas: February 1, 1861

Virginia: April 17, 1861

Arkansas: May 6, 1861

North Carolina: May 20, 1861

Tennessee: June 8, 1861

Kentucky: Ordinance passed by people in 1861

Missouri: Ordinance passed, but not presented to people

Confederates Use Blacks as Human Shields

It seems that all the ‘Contrabands’ in South Carolina are not as loyal as Wilson Small and his associates. A correspondent of one of the Northern papers recites the following incident as a trait of manners developed by the war in South Carolina. A small detachment of confederates crossed Broad river at night at Port Royal ferry in a large flat, adopting a very clever expedient to prevent discovery until the proper time. They placed a number of contrabands in the front of the scow and obliged them to pull them across, while they lay out of sight of our pickets in the boat. The boat was discovered by the pickets, hailed, and allowed to approach the shore, as the negroes answered that they were “niggers on the way to freedom — press de Lord for dat Massa.” The pickets did not discover the ruse until they had received a hot fire from the Confederates, who rose at the command and fired over the negroes’ heads. The fire was feebly returned, and the pickets fell back and continued to fall back until they had arrived at a safe distance. — Nat. Int.

Lincoln’s Letter to Colonel Ellsworth’s Parents

Colonel Ellsworth

To the Father and Mother of Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth:

My dear Sir and Madam, In the untimely loss of your noble son, our affliction here, is scarcely less than your own. So much of promised usefulness to one’s country, and of bright hopes for one’s self and friends, have rarely been so suddenly dashed, as in his fall. In size, in years, and in youthful appearance, a boy only, his power to command men, was surpassingly great. This power, combined with a fine intellect, an indomitable energy, and a taste altogether military, constituted in him, as seemed to me, the best natural talent, in that department, I ever knew. And yet he was singularly modest and deferential in social intercourse. My acquaintance with him began less than two years ago; yet through the latter half of the intervening period, it was as intimate as the disparity of our ages, and my engrossing engagements, would permit. To me, he appeared to have no indulgences or pastimes; and I never heard him utter a profane, or intemperate word. What was conclusive of his good heart, he never forgot his parents. The honors he labored for so laudably, and, in the sad end, so gallantly gave his life, he meant for them, no less than for himself.

In the hope that it may be no intrusion upon the sacredness of your sorrow, I have ventured to address you this tribute to the memory of my young friend, and your brave and early fallen child.

May God give you that consolation which is beyond all earthly power. Sincerely your friend in a common affliction —

A. Lincoln

Longworth Feeds Confederate Families

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 63, Number 155, 19 June 1862

“It is stated that Nicholas Longworth [Longworth House Office Building used by the U.S. House of Representatives is named for him], the Cincinnati millionaire, has contributed $500 to feed the families of Confederate soldiers at the South.”


Longworth later married the daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt, and became Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Happy Confederate Heritage and Not-at-All Racism Day!

Ty Wright/Getty Images

by Ben Mathis-Lilley

After nine black Americans were murdered at a historic church in Charleston, South Carolina, last June by a white supremacist, a number of states removed the Confederate flag or images thereof from official display. Many official tributes to the Confederacy persist, though, and Monday government offices in Alabama and Mississippi are closed as those states celebrate “Confederate Memorial Day.” Several other Southern states hold the same celebration on different dates; state offices in Georgia are closed Monday as well, but per an order signed last year by Gov. Nathan Deal the occasion is now only identified in generic terms as a “State Holiday.”

A new Southern Poverty Law Center report identifies “at least 1,500 symbols of the Confederacy” — monuments, statues, schools named after Jefferson Davis, etc. — in public spaces across the country. Contra the common argument that Confederate tributes are a celebration of ‘heritage’ rather than white supremacy, the SPLC’s press release notes that “the creation of Confederate displays spiked at the beginning of the Jim Crow era and again in response to the civil rights movement.”

Of particular note: 10 United States military bases are named after Confederates, including a fort named after a general named John Brown Gordon who is believed to have gone on to lead the Georgia KKK. Heritage, not hate!

http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2016/04/25/confederate_memorial_day_still_a_thing_in_2016.html