AN ARMY’S MARCH — General Sherman’s army, in it’s last march to meet Johnston, would, if it occupied a single road, require 125 miles of road to stretch itself upon. The wagon trains of this army cannot march on less than forty miles of road. Its batteries will cover seven miles, its ambulances five. It carries 1,800,000 rations of bread, the same amount of sugar, and the same of salt. Eight hundred wagon loads bread, and 3,600,000 rations of coffee are provided for the trip, and for a few days rations of salt meat, 375,000 pounds are deemed a fair allowance. The single item of ammunition requires one thousand wagons — a train of itself nearly twenty miles long. The men, in fours, could not march when well closed up on less than twenty five miles of road. Two thousand five hundred pack mules follow its regiments. And these calculations do not include the intervals between different commands nor allow anything for the great gaps which any slight delay will make in a moving column.
Alexandria Gazette, Volume 66, Number 102, May 5, 1865
Alexandria Gazette, Volume 63, Number 149, 12 June 1862
Alexandrians Killed and Wounded
The Seventeeth Virginia Regiment sustained severe losses in the battles near Richmond, on the 31st of May and 1st of June. We give below a list of such casualties as are published in Richmond papers of the 6th inst:
KILLED — Sergeant Major Francis.
Old Dominion Rifles – Wm. Lunt, shot in breast; Monroe Whittington, shot in head; J.H. Higdon and John Murray.
Mt. Vernon Guards – James Molair.
Emmett Guards – Lt. Wm. Gray.
Major Arthur Herbert, shot in the foot.
Old Dominion Rifles – Capt. W.H. Fowle, jr., arm amputated; Lieut. Thomas Fitzhugh, arm amputated; James Godwin, in foot; Jonah W. Baldwin, thigh fractured; Edwin Baldwin, in head slightly; Wm. J. Hall, in head slightly; Robert Young, in right arm slightly; F. August Calmus, slightly; E.W. Burgess; Hallie Appich, in head slightly.
Alexandria Rifles — Color Sergeant William T. Morrell, wounded in arm, side and foot — foot amputated; W.E.H. Clagett, in shoulder, seriously; Richard W. Avery, in top of head; A Carlisle Fairfax, in thigh.
Mt. Vernon Guards — R.H. Roland, seriously; Albert Hicks and ________ Gerecke.
Emmett Guards — Lieut. Adie; Patrick H. Suddoth, Company D.
Loudoun Guards — Chas. Fadley, in arm; C.H. Bradfield.
Other Companies — Thos. W. Lynn, Robert Steele, James M. Jenkins, D.M. Wallace, G.F. Jenkins, J.W. Cromwell.
Col. Wm. Smith, of the 49th Virginia, was wounded slightly, and Lieut. Col. Gibson, of the same regiment, badly.
Most of the wounded Alexandrians are represented to be at Chew’s Factory Hospital, Richmond. The Enquirer says; “The building is spacious and airy, and admirably kept. The patients are clean and comfortable, and have every want attended to. A large number of ladies were yesterday in attendance, ministering to the stricken sufferers as only a woman can.”
Alexandria Gazette, Volume 66, Number 101, 4 May 1865
The following is the Third Article of the Constitution of the State of Virginia adopted by the Convention which assembled in Alexandria on the 13th of February, 1864, and which prescribes the qualifications of voters in the State:
Every white male citizen of the Commonwealth, of the age of twenty-one years, who has been a resident of the State for one year, and of the county, city or town where he offers to vote for six months next preceding an election, and has paid all taxes assessed to him, after the adoption of this constitution, under the laws of the Commonwealth after the reorganization of the county, city or town where he offers to vote, shall be qualified to vote for members of the general assembly, and all officers elective by the people. Provided, however, that no one shall be allowed to vote who, when he offers to vote, shall not thereupon take, or shall not before have taken, the following oath: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the laws made in pursuance thereof, as the supreme law of the land, anything in the Constitution and laws of the State of Virginia, or in the ordinances of the Convention which assembled at Richmond on the thirteenth day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, to the contrary notwithstanding; and that I will uphold and defend the government of Virginia as restored by the Convention which assembled at Wheeling on the eleventh day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, and that I have not since the first day of January, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, voluntarily given aid or assistance, in any way, to those in rebellion against the Government of the United States for the purpose of promoting the same. ” But the Legislature shall have power to pass an act or acts prescribing means which persons who have been disfranchised by this provision shall or may be restored to the rights of voters when in their opinion it will be safe to do so. Any person falsely so swearing shall be subject to the penalties of perjury.
No person shall hold any office under this Constitution who shall not have taken and subscribed the oath aforesaid. But no person shall vote or hold office under the constitution who has held office under the so called confederate government, or under any rebellious State government, or has been a member of the so called confederate congress, or a member of any State Legislature in rebellion against the authority of the United States, excepting therefrom county officers.
From a claim made to the Southern Claims Commission by Exum White, a free “colored” man of Nansemond County, Virginia, the following statement:
“White was a colored man. The Magistrate of Nansemond Co. in Jany ’62 sentenced him & 100 other colored men to work on the rebel works on railroad near Manassas for 60 days worked by compulsion and got no pay, taken sick & sent home on sick leave. He afterwards worked for the Union army on works around Suffolk for 2 or 3 months. Daniel White and Benjamin Turner attest his loyalty which we find proven.”
Is it possible that 101 free negro men were guilty of crimes that warranted sentencing at the same time? Was the magistrate at Nansemond technically enslaving free negroes to perform work on behalf of the Confederate military?
This is likely nothing new to historians, but it’s the first time I’ve read that “free” people were used in this way by southern courts.
From Wikipedia –
The Southern Claims Commission (SCC) was an organization of the executive branch of the United States government from 1871-1873 under President Ulysses S. Grant. Its purpose was to allow Union sympathizers who had lived in the Southern states during the American Civil War, 1861–1865, to apply for reimbursements for property losses due to U.S. Army confiscations during the war.
South Carolina: December 20, 1860
Mississippi: January 9, 1861
Florida: January 10, 1861
Alabama: January 11, 1861
Georgia: January 19, 1861
Louisiana: January 26, 1861
Texas: February 1, 1861
Virginia: April 17, 1861
Arkansas: May 6, 1861
North Carolina: May 20, 1861
Tennessee: June 8, 1861
Kentucky: Ordinance passed by people in 1861
Missouri: Ordinance passed, but not presented to people
Alexandria Gazette, Volume 63, Number 167, 3 July 1862
Gen. Hunter, of the Department of S.C., has written a letter to the Secretary of War, in reply to the inquiry concerning the equipment, arming, &c., of fugitive slaves, in which he says, that he was authorized by Secretary Cameron to employ all persons, without distinction of color, for the suppression of rebellion; that the regiment of negroes organized are not “fugitives,” but their late masters are “fugitives,” and he concludes as follows – “The experiment of arming the blacks, as far as I have made it has been a complete and even marvelous success. They are sober, docile, attentive and enthusiastic, displaying great natural capacities for acquiring the duties of the soldier. They are eager beyond all things to take the field and be led into action; and it is the unanimous opinion of the officers who have charge of them, that in the peculiarities of this climate and country they will prove invaluable auxiliaries — fully equal to the similar regiments so long and successfully used by the British authorities in the West India Islands. In conclusion, I would say it is my hope, there appearing no possibility of other reinforcements, owing to the exigencies of the campaign in the Peninsula, to have organized by the end of next fall, and be able to present to the Government from forty-eight to fifty thousand of these hardy and devoted soldiers.”
It seems that all the ‘Contrabands’ in South Carolina are not as loyal as Wilson Small and his associates. A correspondent of one of the Northern papers recites the following incident as a trait of manners developed by the war in South Carolina. A small detachment of confederates crossed Broad river at night at Port Royal ferry in a large flat, adopting a very clever expedient to prevent discovery until the proper time. They placed a number of contrabands in the front of the scow and obliged them to pull them across, while they lay out of sight of our pickets in the boat. The boat was discovered by the pickets, hailed, and allowed to approach the shore, as the negroes answered that they were “niggers on the way to freedom — press de Lord for dat Massa.” The pickets did not discover the ruse until they had received a hot fire from the Confederates, who rose at the command and fired over the negroes’ heads. The fire was feebly returned, and the pickets fell back and continued to fall back until they had arrived at a safe distance. — Nat. Int.
Alexandria Gazette, Volume 63, Number 150, 13 June 1862
Mr. Vincent Colyer, in his address at the Cooper Institute at N.Y. , on Tuesday night, said, he had seen the President , and spoke as follows: “The President said that the idea of closing schools and sending back fugitive slaves, and searching vehicles going north, never had emanated from his administration. Such an order had never been given by him, nor would it be tolerated by him or his administration. He said more than that. He said no fugitive slave who came within the lines of the United States army should ever be returned to his master.”
According to Wikipedia, Vincent Colyer was an American artist noted for his images of the American west. During the Civil War, Colyer created the United States Christian Commission, and worked with the federal government to try to help freedmen and Native Americans.
As superintendent of the poor in New Bern, North Carolina under General Ambrose Burnside, he wrote the Report of the Services Rendered by the Freed People to the United States Army in North Carolina, in the Spring of 1862, After the Battle of Newbern (1864). With the government decision in 1863 to allow black troops to fight, Colyer began to recruit and train the men for the United States Colored Troops. He also served with the Indian commission.
To the Father and Mother of Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth:
My dear Sir and Madam, In the untimely loss of your noble son, our affliction here, is scarcely less than your own. So much of promised usefulness to one’s country, and of bright hopes for one’s self and friends, have rarely been so suddenly dashed, as in his fall. In size, in years, and in youthful appearance, a boy only, his power to command men, was surpassingly great. This power, combined with a fine intellect, an indomitable energy, and a taste altogether military, constituted in him, as seemed to me, the best natural talent, in that department, I ever knew. And yet he was singularly modest and deferential in social intercourse. My acquaintance with him began less than two years ago; yet through the latter half of the intervening period, it was as intimate as the disparity of our ages, and my engrossing engagements, would permit. To me, he appeared to have no indulgences or pastimes; and I never heard him utter a profane, or intemperate word. What was conclusive of his good heart, he never forgot his parents. The honors he labored for so laudably, and, in the sad end, so gallantly gave his life, he meant for them, no less than for himself.
In the hope that it may be no intrusion upon the sacredness of your sorrow, I have ventured to address you this tribute to the memory of my young friend, and your brave and early fallen child.
May God give you that consolation which is beyond all earthly power. Sincerely your friend in a common affliction —